TNO has conducted research into the various governance models for Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) on behalf of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management. MaaS is a concept that is developing worldwide, MaaS services are growing in number and versatility as well as MaaS ecosystem around them in which existing and new players are active. The distribution of roles and responsibilities and the use of policy instruments by the government differ greatly between countries.

TNO has carried out a comparative case study on behalf of and in collaboration with the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management to gain insight into the MaaS governance in various countries. In addition to developments in the Netherlands, approaches in Austria, Finland, Île-de-France (Paris region, France), Los Angeles (US) and Singapore have been investigated. The results are published this week in the report ‘Policy options to steer Mobility as a Service: international case studies’.

The report shows that in some of the countries the focus lies on active steering and the expansion of mobility and MaaS services, in others a reactive attitude is taken. Who the main actors are, also differs per case, in some countries public authorities play a major role and set up their own MaaS platform, in other countries mainly the framework conditions are set or the government plays a facilitating role in building an ecosystem.

The results of the study have uncovered that MaaS is still in the early stages of development and that all of the cases studied are primarily focussed on creating base conditions for MaaS development. There is generally a low uptake and utilisation of MaaS services. The study also indicates that public authorities have important yet very different roles in steering MaaS. They use and experiment with a wide range of policy instruments to develop MaaS for which public-private collaboration is key.

Finally, the case study outlines that shaping the entire MaaS ecosystem requires effort, long-lasting dedication and patience. Looking ahead, the strengthening of the knowledge base on MaaS is critical.

Read a full study here.