The European project MODALES (MOdify Drivers’ behaviour to Adapt for Lower EmissionS) has successfully addressed the definition of low-emission factors and has published three publicly available reports:
- Variability of driving behaviours and Low-emission driving requirements. This document was lead by project partner University of Leeds and focuses on two key aspects. Firstly, the variability in driving behaviours, which sets out the MODALES consortium’s understanding of the link between different types of driving behaviour and emissions. Secondly, the low emission driving requirements, which build on the understanding of existing low-emission driving programmes and projects to help set out what is needed to realise the objective of low emission driving.
- Real effectiveness of OBD inspection and maintenance, and retrofits. This document was lead by ERTICO Partner and project member VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. This document addresses three main themes: 1) detecting high-emitting vehicles with periodic tests, 2) probing the performance of Emissions after-treatment (EAT) system by on-board diagnostics (OBD), and 3) assessing the potential of lowering the harmful emissions of vehicles by retrofitted EAT devices.
- Legal situation of tampering. This document was lead by project member Spark Legal Network and provides a comparative analysis identifying the commonalities and contrasts in legislation on vehicle tampering across a selection of EU Member States based on data collected through legal research questionnaires as well as a stakeholder survey.
All content is publicly available in MODALES’ deliverable section.